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Chap 25 26 outline
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Chap 25.26 Outline

Britany Gable

The New Imperialism
A. Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
B. The Industrial Revolution greatly strengthened European economics.
C. Europeans embarked on that path of aggressive expansion that today’s historians call the “new imperialism”
Motives of the New Imperialists
A. The Industrial Revolution caused needs that spurred overseas expansion.
B. Closely linked to economic motives were political and military issues
C. Many westerners embraced the scientific-sounding ideas of Social Darwinism
Down the Barrel of a Gun
A. Western Imperialism succeeded for a number of reasons.
B. Europeans had the advantages of strong economics, well organized governments, and powerful armies and naives.
C. Africans and Asians strongly existed western expansion
Forms of Imperial Control
A. Sometimes a western power established a protectorate. In a protectorate, local rulers were left in place.
B. A third form of western control was the sphere of influence, an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges.
C. The British relied on a system of indirect rule.
On the Eve of the Scramble
A. Westerners knew little about Africa and called it the “dark continent”
B. In the 1800’s European nations sent explorers to Africa and later became involved in a “scramble” for African colonies.
C. Africa was a huge, unexplored continent that was four times the size of Europe
European Contacts Increase
A. Europeans had taken enslaved Africans to work the plantations and mines of the Americans
B. In the early 1800’s Europeans slowly outlawed the slave trade
C. In the early 1800’s European explorers began pushing into the interior of the African continent.
The Great Scramble Begins
A. To avoid bloodshed, European powers met at an international conference called the Berlin Conference.
B. In the 10 years after the Berlin Conference, the European powers partitioned almost the entire continent
C. African inhabitants were given little or n role in either the government or economy of the colony.
Carving Up a Continent
A. France took a giant share of Africa, greater than Britain’s.
B. In the late 1800’s, the discovery of gold and diamonds in the Boer republics set off the Boer War
C. Other European powers joined the scramble, in part to bolster their national image, in part to further their economic growth and influence
Africans Fight Back
A. Europeans met resistance across the continent
B. Successful resistance was achieved by Ethiopia
C. During the age of Imperialism, a western-educated African elite emerged
Ferment in the Muslim World
A. The Muslim world extended from western Africa to Southeast Asia
B. In the 1700’s and early 1800’s reform movements sprang up across the Muslim world
C. Added to internal ferment and decay, the old Muslim empires faced western imperialism
Challenges to the Ottoman Empire
A. At its height, the Ottoman empire had extended across the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Eastern Europe
B. Britain, France, and Russia each sought to benefit from the slow crumbling of the Ottoman-held empire
C. During the Crimean War the British and French had helped the Ottomans resist Russian empire
Efforts at Reform
A. Ottoman rulers saw the need for reform
B. They reorganized the bureaucracy and system of tax collection
C. Genocide is the deliberate attempt to destroy an entire religious group
Egypt Seeks to Modernize
A. Muhammad Ali is sometimes called the “father of modern Egypt”
B. He improved tax collections, reorganized the landholding system, and backed large irrigation projects to increase farm output
C. Organized a company to build the Suez Canal, linked the Red and Mediterranean seas
Iran and the Western Powers
A. Reform did not save Iran from western imperialism
B. Russia and Britain intrigued for control for control of Iranian oil fields
C. When economic rights were granted to foreign powers and it outraged Iranian nationalists
East India Company
A. In the early 1600’s the British East India Company obtained trading on the fringe of the Mughal empire
B. The East India Company’s main goal in India was to make money
C. British officials introduced western education and legal procedures
The Sepoy Rebellion
A. The East India Trading Company took several unpopular steps
B. Angry sepoys rose up against their British officers.
C. The Sepoy Rebellion left a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust on both sides
The “Brightest Jewel”
A. The Parliament set up a system of colonisl rule in India
B. It encouraged nomadic farmers to grow cash crops, such as cotton and jute, that could be sold on the world market
C. The British introduced medical improvements
Indians and British: Viewing Two Cultures
A. Roy wanted to revitalize and reform traditional Indian culture
B. Roy condemned some traditions such as rigid caste distinctions, child marriage, sati, and quarters
C. Some British admired the Indian theology and philosophy
Growing Nationalism
A. During the years of British rule, a class of western-educated Indians emerged
B. In 1855, nationalist leaders organized the Indian National Congress, which became known as the Congress party
C. Protests and resistance to British rule increased
The Trade Issue
A. Balance of trade is exporting more than it imported
B. Trade deficit is when you buy more than you sell
C. Indemnity is the payment for losses in a war
Internal Powers
A. Extraterritoriality is the right to live under their own laws and be tried in their own courts
B. As poverty and misery increased peasants rebelled
C. The Taiping Rebellion almost toppled the Qing dynasty
Reform Efforts
A. Some Chinese wanted to adopt western ideas but others worried that technology such as railroads and steamships would bring unwelcome changes
B. The island nation of Japan modernized rapidly; it joined the western imperialists in the competition for global empire
C. Defeated by Japan and humiliated by westerners the Chinese looked for a scapegoat
The Empire Crumbles
A. As the century ended, China was in turmoil
B. China once again had to make concessions to foreigners
C. When Ci Xi died in 1908 and the two-year-old boy inherited the throne China slipped into chaos.

Strains in Tokugawa Japan
A. The Tokugawa shoguns reimposed centralized feudalism, closed Japan to foreigners, and forbade Japanese to travel overseas
B. For 215 years, Japan developed in near isolation
C. Daimyo suffered financial hardship because their wealth was in land
Opening Up Japan
A. In July 1853 a fleet of well-armed American ships commanded by Commodore Mathew Perry sailed into Tokyo Bay.
B. Foreign pressure deepened the social and economic unrest
C. The United States demanded that Japan open its ports to trade
Fukazawa Yukichi Travels Abroad
A. Fukazawa Yukichi was an early visitor to the west
B. The Japanese saw their first steamship in 1853 when Commodore Perry arrived, two years later they began studying modern navigation.
C. The Japanese explored and joined the modern world
Reforms Under the Meiji
A. Meiji reformers faced an enormous task
B. . They were determined to replace the rigid old feudal system with a new political and social system and to building a modern economics.
C. Reformers wanted to create a strong central government equal to those of the western powers.
Competition for Empire
A. Zaibatsu were powerful banking and industrial families
B. Homogeneous society means having a common culture and language
C. As with western industrial powers, Japan’s economic needs fed its imperialist desires
Korea: A Focus of Competition
A. Imperialist rivalries put the spotlight on Korea
B. Although Korea had long been influenced by its powerful Chinese neighbor, it had its own traditions and government.
C. Japan ruled Korea for 35 years
Colonizing Southeast Asia
A. Southeast Asia commanded the sea lanes between India and China and had long been influenced by both civilizations
B. By the 1890s Europeans controlled most of Southeast Asia
C. Many Chinese migrated to Southeast Asia to escape hardship and turmoil at home and to benefit from growing economic opportunities
Thailand Survives
A. Although king Mongkut had to accept sine unequal treaties, he set Siam on the road to modernaization
B. In the end both Britain and France saw the advantage of making Thailand a buffer, or neutral zone between them
C. They abolished slavery and gave women some choice in marriage
Imperialism and Nationalism in the Philippines
A. In the 1500’s Spain seized the Philippines
B. The US became involved in the fate of the Philippines almost by accident
C. Bitterly disappointed, Filipino nationalists renewed their struggle
Western Powers in the Pacific
A. In the 1800s the industrial powers began to take an interest in the islands og the Pacific
B. In1878 the US secured an “unequal treaty” from Samoa gaining rights such as extraterritoriality and a naval station
C. By 1900 the US, Britain, France, and Germany had claimed nearly every island on the Pacific
The Canadian Pattern
A. Indigenous means original
B. Canada’s first European rulers were French
C. John Macdonald was Canada’s first prime minister
Europeans in Australia
A. The Dutch were the first Europeans to reach Australia
B. Penal colony is a place to send people convicted of crimes
C. The Australian constitution drew on both British and American models
New Zealand
A. Captain Cook claimed New Zealand for England
B. New Zealand wanted self rule and in 1907 they won their independence
C. New Zealand pioneered several areas of the democratic government
Problems Facing the New Nations
A. Regionalism is loyalty to a local area
B. Caudillos are assembled private armies to resist the central government
C. Power struggles led to frequent revolts that changed little except the name of the leader
The Economics of Dependence
A. economic dependence occurs when less developed nations export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations and import manufactured goods
B. in the 1800s foreign goods flooded into Latin America creating large profits for foreigners and for a handful of local businesses
C. Foreign investment was often accompanied by interference
Mexico’s Struggle for Stability
A. in the peonage system, hacienda owners would give workers advances on their wages and require then to stay until they paid it back
B. large land owners, army leaders, and the Catholic Church dominated the Mexican government
C. in 1855, Benito Juarez and other Liberals seized power, opening La Reforma, an era of reform
Colossus of the North
A. As nations like Mexico tried to build stable governments, a neighboring republic, the US, was expanding across North America
B. President James Monroe wanted to avoid any “entangling alliance” with Britain so he issued the Monroe Doctrine
C. American investments in Latin America soared in the early 1900s
New Economic Patterns
A. during the Age of Imperialism a truly global economy emerged
B. Western capitalism developed plantations and mines but relied on a steady supply of local labor to work them
C. Colonial rule brought economic benefits
Cultural Impact
A. During the Age of Imperialism Europeans were convinced of their own superiority and believed they had a mission to civilize the world
B. As westerners conquered other lands they pressed the subject people to accept “modern” ways
C. western culture was often spread by missionaries who built schools and hospitals
New Political Tensions
A. Imperialism had global political consequences
B. By the early 1900s resistance to imperialism was taking a new course
C. Imperialism united rival people into one government





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