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10.2 Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution and their enduring effects worldwide on the political expectations for self-government and individual liberty.
1. Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects on the democratic revolutions in England, the United States, France, and Latin America (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Simón Bolívar, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison).
John Locke influenced the democratic revolutions in England and influenced the government in the United States. Locke's ideas of a man's natural rights, in life, liberty, and property, had a large influence on the development of political philosophy. His ideas about governments formed the basic concepts used in the American law and government. Charles-Louis Montesquieu was French political thinker during the Enlightenment and is known for his speeches on the theory of separation of powers. Montesquieu’s ideas are applied in many constitutions all over the world. Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s ideas influenced the French Revolution. Simón Bolívar was a South American revolutionary leader. Bolίvar is credited with leading the fight for independence in what are now the nations of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Thomas Jefferson was one of the chief authors of the American Declaration of Independence and this has affected America to this day. James Madison is regarded as the Father of the American Constitution.
2. Understand the unique character of the American Revolution, its spread to other parts of the world, and its continuing significance to other nations.
The American Revolution is a time that went from the period from 1763, which is when the French and Indian War ended, to 1800, when Jefferson was elected President of the United States. It was an important time period because it was the first time when Americans came to see themselves as Americans, not as British colonists who lived in America. There were some colonists who opposed separating from Great Britain and then there were some colonists that were devoted to escaping British rule. It was clear that the great majority among the Revolutionary generation wanted a national Union. The Revolution that the colonists wished to create was one that would affect monarchs all forms of power, loosen the bonds of society, and open the way to greater opportunities.
The American Revolution left us with two documents that remain crucial to this day. Those two documents are the Constitution, our basic rights, and the Declaration of Independence, with its promise of liberty. There were many notable contributes who continue to inspire, from the obvious Founding Fathers to obscure farmers, workers, and soldiers who struggled and sacrificed to win Independence and achieve the new world. The Constitution and Declaration of Independence still affect the world today. The documents have kept America in freedom since their independence from England and is an inspiration to other countries who wish to enjoy and experience the same freedom that Americans are blessed with under the two documents.
3. Explain how the ideology of the French Revolution led France to develop from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic empire.
The French Revolution had wide spreading results. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars tore down the ancient structure of Europe, hurried the beginning of nationalism, and opened the time of modern warfare. Although some historians think that the Reign of Terror was a sign of today’s dictatorship, some people think that it played the important role that the Revolution played in starting such things as elections, representative governments, and constitutions. Some major historical views of the French Revolution have different opinions, but almost all of them agree that it had an important role in making the world we know today.
4. Discuss how nationalism spread across Europe with Napoleon but was repressed for a generation under the Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe until the Revolutions of 1848.
With the revolutions of each of the countries the bourgeoisie was thrown out and overthrown and nationalism set it. Along with the revolutions of countries came nationalism and those revolutions are what caused nationalism to spread throughout Europe.

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