Annul- To Cancel, to make or declare void or invalid. Henry VIII asked the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine because
he did not get a son.
Gravity- the force of attraction, characterized by heaviness or weight, by which terrestrial bodies tend to fall toward
the center of the earth.
Patron- A person who uses library materials and/or services. Lorenzo was a patron.
Perspective- the process of viewing something from a distinct vantage point; or, the impression one has of an object or
landscape from particular vantage point
Theocracy- A government ruled by or subject to religious authority. Calvin set up a theocracy.
John Calvin- a prominent Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation. Calvin is the namesake of the system
of Christian theology called Calvinism.
Henry VIII- King of England who transformed his country into a Protestant nation during the Reformation. Asked for a marriage
Leonardo da Vinci- Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect. The most multitalented genius
of the Italian Renaissance
Lorenzo de' Medici- an Italian statesman. Ruler of the Florentine Republic during the height of the Italian Renaissance.
Niccolo Machiavelli- Wrote The Prince. A statesman of Florence who was a supporter of a strong central government
Heliocentric- Term that means the planets revolve around the sun. Copernicus presented this idea.
Humanism- A cultural movement during the Renaissance. A philosophy or attitude concerned with the interests, achievements,
and capabilities of human beings rather than with the hypothetical concepts and problems of theology or science.
Indulgence- the help from the pope from the punishment in purgatory that is still due for sins even after forgiveness.
People would pay the Church for their indulgence or for someone else.
Predestination- Previous determination as if by destiny or fate. The belief of Calvinists, that God has already decided,
even before their birth, which people will go to heaven and who will go to hell.
Recant- To reject a belief or withdraw something previously said. The Church called for Martin Luther to recant the 95
Copernicus- Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center. Presented
a heliocentric solar system.
Durer- A leading German painter durring the Renaissance. Known for his wood carvings.
Luther- Wrote the 95 Thesis. Led the Reformation; believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than
Newton- Developed the law of gravity and his three laws of motion. Newton was not just a mathematician and scientist,
but was also important as a philosopher
Petrarch- Italian scholar, poet, and early humanist. One of the “Fathers of the Renaissance.”
Renaissance focus- the Renaissance paintings focused in the human realm instead of a spiritual focus. The people can go
up in the society pyramid instead of having to remain in the class that they were born in.
Printing of reformation- Printing became cheaper and more books were printed. This reformation spread education to more
Results of Reformation- New type of church was out because of the reformation named Protestant, were you could go to the
heavens without the church. And the Catholic Church became less corrupt to keep up with the other Church’s reformation.
Causes of Renaissance- The new styles of art, a new system of typing typing, there were more philosopher thinkers, and
there was a scientific revolution
Hobbes- English political philosopher, most famous for his book Leviathan. He favored an absolute government.
Locke- He wrote Two Treaties on Government which explained that all men have Natural Rights, which are Life, Liberty,
and Property. He believed that the purpose of government was to protect these rights.
Joseph II- The son of Maria Teresa. Most radical enlightened despot.
Constitional government- a government whose power is defined and limited by law.
Enlightened despot- An absolute ruler is someone who uses their power to bring about political and social change. Joseph
II was an enlightened despot.
Natural laws- rules that govern human nature. These laws produced by scientists.
Natural rights- rights that belong to all humans from birth. These rights were thought up by Locke.
Physiocrat- a group of thinkers who believed in an economic theory. Physiocracy was perhaps the first well developed theory
Bach- German organist and contrapuntist; composed mostly keyboard music; one of the greatest creators of Western music
Diderot- French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France. Principal editor of an encyclopedia
that disseminated the scientific and philosophical knowledge of the time.
Tom Paine- One of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He supported the colonist's to fight for independence.
Rousseau- His ideas influenced the French Revolution. He emphasized individual liberty in 'The Social Contract'
Robert Walpole- He was the first British prime minister. He is also known for being a British Whig statesman.
Baroque- The period of music from the early to mid 1600's to the mid 1700's. Characterized in the visual arts by dramatic
light and shade, turbulent composition, and exaggerated emotional expression.
Free market- A system in which the market is in charge of supply and demand and determining the prices and assigns available
supplies. It is a market without government intervention.
Laissez faire- This term means the government should leave things alone, or stay out of the economy. It is the policy
of a non-interfering government.
Salon- A gallery where works of art can be displayed. A government-sponsored exhibition named after a room in the Louvre
where court painters exhibited their works.
Social contract- agreement by which people give up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos. An
example of someone who did this is Hobbes.