Chapter 20, 21 22 Outlines
I. Turning Point in History
A. The Industrial Revolution was a major turning point in the 1850’s and it changed the way people lived then
and the way people live today.
B. A lot of country villages became industrial towns.
C. Travel was easier with the ability to travel by train or steamship.
II. A New Agricultural Revolution
A. The second agricultural revolution took place after the first.
B. Dutch contributed a lot to the second agricultural revolution.
C. Farmers created new farming techniques and new devises and their crops and livestock benefited because of it.
III. The Population Explosion
A. There was a population increase at this point.
B. The agricultural revolution lowered the risk of disease.
C. There was better hygiene, medical care, and because of this there were less deaths.
IV. An Energy Revolution
A. In the first factories water wheels powered many machines.
B. There was the development of the steam engine in 1712.
C. James Watt improved used other engines to power his steam engines.
V. Why Britain?
A. Britain had supplies of coal and iron which made it easier for them to build more machines and made it easier to power
B. A large number of workers were available to build factories after the population boom.
C. Britain had many people developing and inventing new things.
VI. The Age of Iron and Coal
A. One reason that Britain changed to coal and iron was that they had used the majority of the wood.
B. Iron was used to build iron bridges.
C. Iron was used for machine making and coal was used to power machines.
VII. Revolutionary Changes in the Textile Industry
A. Cotton from countries like India became very important.
B. The spinning jenny was invented in 1764 that could spin many threads at the same time.
C. The water frame used water power to speed the pace of the spinning further.
VIII. Revolution of Transportation
A. Turnpikes were privately built roads, they charged travelers who used them.
B. Canals were dug to connect rivers to coastal ports
C. The steam locomotive was a major invention that changed the ways of transportation.
IX. Looking Ahead
A. Inventors developed many machines that produced goods efficiently
B. As the supply of goods increased the prices fell
C. Lower prices of goods were more affordable and demands for goods
X. The New Industrial City
A. The industrial revolution brought urbanization
B. Large cities grew where small towns use to be
C. There was a larger population of poor people than there was of higher and middle classes
XI. The Factory System
A. There was a factory in the center of every city
B. Schedules in the factory were controlled by a whistle.
C. The factory’s demands were worse than the ones on a farm
XII. Patience Kershaw’s Life Underground
A. The horrors of child labor in Britain were finally exposed in the 1830’s and 40’s.
B. Patience Kershaw was one of many who had to work long, hard hours underground in the coal mines
C. Because of the testaments given by people like Patience Kershaw, there were laws made in Britain to control the employment
XIII. The Working Class
A. Many of the original weavers would not use the new machines
B. Rioters became known as Luddites
C. Luddites were hung or sent to punishing colonies in Australia
XIV. The New Middle Class
A. Entrepreneurs benefited most from the Industrial Revolution.
B. Many of the men the middle class Parliament men were against the efforts to control factories
XV. Benefits and Problems
A. Many reformers pressed for laws to improve working conditions
B. More jobs and higher wages were some of the benefits during the Industrial Revolution because of the factories.
C. Unions won the right to deal with employers for better wages and hours.
XVI. Laissez-faire Economics
A. laissez-faire is a form of “hands-off” government
B. Adam Smith believed that a free market would help everyone, not just the rich.
C. Some of the laissez-faire supporters believed that the best way to deal with poverty was not government help
XVII. The Utilitarians
A. Utilitarianism was the idea that the goal of a society should be “the greatest happiness for the greatest
number” of its citizens
B. John Stewart Mill argued that actions are right if they promote happiness.
C. Most middle class people rejected Mill’s ideas.
XVIII. Emergence of Socialism
A. Socialism was an idea to end poverty and injustice.
B. The goal of socialists was a society that operated for the welfare of all the people
C. Under socialism, the people as whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the “means of
XIX. The “Scientific Socialism” of Karl Marx
A. Karl Marx was a German philosopher who condemned the ideas of the Utopians as unrealistic idealism
B. Communism is a form of socialism that sees class struggle between employers and employees as inevitable
C. At first Marxist ideas had little impact but later they would have worldwide effects.
I. Preserving the Old order
A. The Congress of Vienna was a clear victory for conservative forces.
B. The conservatives in 1815 had very different goals from conservatives in the United States today.
C. Conservatives believed that talk about natural rights and constitutional government could only lead to chaos.
II. The liberal challenge
A. The Liberal challenge challenges liberal ideas about the conservatives at every turn were the liberals.
B. Liberals embraced Enlightenment ideas spread by the French Revolution.
C. Liberals through their support behind the principle of universal manhood suffrage.
III. Nationalist Stirrings
A. Nationalism gave people with a common heritage a sense of identity and a goal to establish their own homeland.
B. Autonomy was achieved by the Balkins within the Ottoman empire.
C. The great increase of population was mostly from a decrease in death rates.
IV. Challenges to the Old Order
A. Revolts occurred along the southern fringe of Europe.
B. Troops dampened the fires of liberalism and nationalism in western and southern areas of Europe.
C. Metternich urged conservative rulers to crush the uprisings.
V. France after the Restoration
A. When Louis XVIII was restored to the French throne, he issued the Charter of French Liberties.
B. Louis’s compromises satisfied few people.
C. the French people called Louis Philippe the “citizen king” because he owed his throne to the people.
VI. The French Revolution of 1848
A. Louis Napoleon wanted to restore order.
B. There were many major inventions created at the time, inventions like John Kay’s flying shuttle and Richard
Arkwright’s water frame.
C. Napoleon III ruled at a time of rapid economic growth.
VII. “Europe Catches Cold”
A. Turnpikes were privately built roads that charged travelers who used them.
B. The invention of the steam locomotive was what made the growth of railroads possible.
C. To transport goods across sea they built the paddle wheel steamboats to pull barges along canals.
VIII. The springtime of the Peoples
A. Metternich was a leader at this time, but his empire failed and was taken by the government.
B. There were many changes in the lifestyles of farming.
C. With the increasing population growth there was a demand for workers that led to large amounts of people migrating
from farms cities.
IX. Looking Ahead
A. By 1850 the liberal revolution was ending
B. Metternich was gone from Europe
C. Metternich’s conservative system was still in force.
X. Climate of discontent
A. The factory was center of the industrial revolution
B. The factory was different from farm work because even though you work hard, in a factory you produce more than you
would on a farm
C. Factories hired children because they were quick, but this caused child labor.
XI. Haiti’s Struggle
A. Because the factories hired many children at young ages a lot of them were not educated, and this caused many problems.
B. Some children were forced to work when they were about 5 years old
C. Kershaw was against child labor for many reasons and wrote a book on the topic. XII. Toussaint L’Ouverture
A. Some people in the working-class found security in a new religious movement.
B. Methodist gatherings had hymns and the sermons promising forgiveness of sin and a better life
C. There was a Sunday school set up so that the followers could study Bible
XIII. A Call to Freedom in Mexico
A. There was a new industrial revolution that was mainly affected the middle class because they were the workers
B. Middle-class families lived in a good lifestyle
C. The new middle class thought that hard work and the determination was important to “get ahead”
XIV. New Republics in Central America
A. The Laissez- Faire meant that the government was “hands off”
B. Central America declared independence from Spain in 1820’s
C. Adam Smith thought that a free market would help everyone
XV. Revolutions in South America
A. The strongest challenge by Native Americans was Tupac.
B. Tupac Amaru organized a revolt
C. South American countries wanted independence and were influenced by the American and French Revolutions.
XVI. Independence for Brazil
A. The Portuguese king introduced many reforms, including free trade.
B. Napoleon’s armies conquered Portugal
C. In 1822, Pedro became emperor of the independent Brazil
I. New Industrial Powers
A. Britain was the world’s industrial giant in the early revolution
B. Germany became a powerful nation after.
C. Industrial nations competed fiercely for power.
II. New Methods of Production
A. Interchangeable parts were identical components that could be used in place of one another.
B. An assembly line is workers that add parts to a product that moves along a belt from one worker to the next.
C. The new methods of production made life in the factories much easier and more productive.
III. Technology and Industry
A. In 1856 Henry Bessemer developed a process to purify iron ore and produce a new substance, steel.
B. Steel was harder, lighter and more durable than iron.
C. Nobel invented dynamite, a safer explosive than what was used at that time.
IV. The Shrinking World
A. During second industrial Revolution many things were transformed by technology.
B. Steamships replaced sailing ships and railroad building took off.
C. In the United States a transcontinental railroad was built.
V. New Directions for Business
A. Corporations are businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock.
B. Cartel is an association to fix prices, set production quotas, or divide up markets.
C. Some people saw Krupps and Rockefellers as “captains of industry”
VI. Medicine and Population.
A. The population explosion that had begun in the 1700s continued, the population of Europe more than doubled.
B. Robert Koch identified bacteria that caused tuberculosis
C. William Morton introduced anesthesia to relieve pain during surgery.
VII. The Life of the Cities
A. City life was harsh on the poor.
B. Cities were magnetic centers of action.
C. Paves streets made urban areas much more livable.
VIII. Working Class Struggles
A. The working class protested their low wages
B. Workers tried to improve the harsh conditions of industrial life.
C. Pushed by unions, reformers, and working class voters, governments passed laws regulating conditions in factories
IX. A Shifting Social Order
A. The industrial Revolution slowly changed the old social order in the western world.
B. With the spread of industry a more complex social structure emerged
C. Workers made up 30% of the population
X. Middle Class Values
A. There was a strict code of etiquette governed social behavior
B. The nuclear family lived in a large house, or perhaps in on of the new apartments.
C. Parents strictly supervised their children
XI. Rights for Women
A. Before 1850 some women had become leaders in the union movement.
B. Some women became leaders in the union movement
C. Many women broke the barriers that kept them out of universities and professions
XII. The Growth of Schools
A. Reformers convinced governments to set up public schools and require basic education for all children
B. Many teachers didn’t have little schooling themselves
C. In rural areas children attended school when they were not needed on the farm
XIII. The Challenge of Science
A. Researchers advanced startling theories about the natural world.
B. Archeology added other pieces to an emerging debate about the origins of life on earth.
C. Germany discovered fossils of prehistoric people
XIV. The Darwin Furor
A. Racism is the belief that one racial group is superior to another.
B. Darwin theory stated everything evolved from something else
C. Darwin’s theories caused a lot of debate, and still causes debates today
XV. Christianity in the Industrial Age
A. Christianity continued to be a major force in western society.
B. Churches remained at the center of communities and church leaders influenced political, social, and educational
C. Social gospel was a movement that urged Christians to social service.
XVI. The Revolt Against Reason
A. Romanticism was a movement shaped the western literature and arts
B. Romanticism shaped literature
C. Painters broke free from the discipline and strict rules of the Enlightenment
XVII. A Tortured Musical Genius
A. Dedicated a symphony to Napoleon
B. His music was not appreciated at first.
C. Beethoven is still popular
XVIII. The Call to Realism
A. Realism was an attempt to represent the world as it was.
B. The English novelist Charles Dickens vividly portrayed the lives of slum dwellers and factory workers
C. Painters also represented the realities of their time
XIX. Women Writers Win Recognition
A. A growing number of women were getting their works into print.
B. Dudevant published a highly successful novel
C. Stowe created a sensation with her first novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin
XX. New Directions in the Visual Arts
A. Daguerre and Talbot had improved technologies to produce successful photographs.
B. A new art form of photography emerged.
C. Impressionism was the impression the viewer would get the impression from.