Industrial Revolution Study Guide
Ch. 20, 21, and 22
Please write two meaningful sentences that are related to each of the following terms. One can be a definition and the
other an example or two of the terms relevance from the text. This discipline insures that you have improved comprehension
and command of the material. (Remember to double space between terms for easier viewing).
Enclosure- the process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers.
Factories (How they worked)- There were many factory workers and each of them had their own job. It was common to have
young children working in the factories.
Turnpike- privately built roads that charged a fee to travelers who used them
Urbanization- a movement of people to cities
Utilitarianism- the idea that the goal of society should be “the greatest happiness for the greatest number”
of its citizens
Socialism- a system based on public ownership of the means of production and distribution of wealth.
Communism- an economic system in which capital is owned by private government.
Proletariat- the working class. Those who lack capital and must sell their unskilled labor in order to survive.
Michael Faraday- an English physicist and chemist. He discovered electromagnetic induction
John Wesley- founder of Methodism.
Karl Marx- founder of modern communism. He wrote the Communist Manifesto with Engels in 1848
Thomas Malthus- an English economist. He argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence
John Stuart Mill- English philosopher and economist. He is known for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism
James Watt- Scottish engineer and inventor. His improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry
David Ricardo- English economist. He argued that the laws of supply and demand should operate in a free market
Jeremy Bentham- English philosopher and jurist. He was the founder of utilitarianism
Robert Owen- Welsh industrialist and social reformer. He founded cooperative communities
Britain's population growth (why did it happen?)- There was a lower death rate during the Industrial revolution. This
lower death rate caused the population to grow.
Importance of coal to Industrialization- Coal was important for energy. It played an important part in factories.
Agricultural Revolution- Period of change in human economy marked by a shift from wild foods to the production of owned
plants and animals.
Textile industry- Invention by John Kay called the flying shuttle made it possible for one person to weave wide bolts
of cloth by using a machine that sent the shuttle across the loom. There was also a new invention called the “spinning
Laissez faire economics (Adam Smith)- Adam Smith was a Scottish economist who argued that markets, not governments, should
regulate the economic relationship among people. Laissez faire is a philosophy that supports minimal government interference
in the economy.
Ideology- the unifying system of beliefs, attitudes, and values expressed in the superstructure of a culture
Universal manhood suffrage- giving all adult men the right to vote, and social reforms.
Autonomy- a person’s ability to make independent choices
El Grito de Dolores- Hidalgo presided over the poor rural parish of Dolores. He gave a speech known as “El Grito
February Days- When the government took steps to silence critics and prevent public meetings, angry crowds took to the
Frankfurt Assembly- the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848. They tried to unite
Germany in a democratic way.
Simon Bolivar- led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule. He founded Bolivia in 1825
Miguel Hidalgo- chief instigator of Mexico's war of independence against Spain. Hidalgo was an avid reader of banned French
Louis Kossuth- was a Hungarian lawyer, journalist. He was one of the most significant politicians
Louis XVIII- was King of France. He tried to issue a Constitutional Charter which accepted many revolutionary changes
and guaranteed civil liberties
John Stuart Mill- English philosopher and economist. He is remembered for his interpretations of empiricism and utilitarianism
Toussaint L' Ouverture
Louis Napoleon- was a President of France, and later, Emperor of the French.
Louis Philippe- served as the "Orleanist" king of the French from 1830 to 1848.
Clemens Von Metternich- an Austrian politician and statesman and perhaps the most important diplomat of his era.
Interchangeable parts- parts that could be used for more than one purpose. Parts of a product made to such precision that
they do not have to be custom fitted.
Assembly line- An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are added to a product in a
sequential manner to create an end product. Henry Ford used this to build affordable cars.
Corporation- a business firm whose articles of incorporation have been approved in some state
Cartel- a group of producers who enter a collusive agreement to restrict output in order to raise prices and profits
Racism- the inherent belief in the superiority of one race over all others and thereby the right to dominance
Social gospel- it was a Protestant movement. The movement attempts to apply Christian principles to social problems.
Romanticism- a movement elevated the individual, the passions, and the inner life. It stressed strong emotion, imagination,
freedom from classical correctness in art forms
Realism- A style of painting which depicts subject matter as it appears in actuality or ordinary visual experience without
distortion or stylization.
Impressionism- A style of painting that originated in France about 1870. Paintings of casual subjects, executed outdoors,
using divided brush strokes to capture the mood of a particular moment as defined by the transitory effects of light and color.
Social Darwinism- A social theory which states that the level a person rises to in society and wealth is determined by
their genetic background.
Darwin- English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection. His work became the foundation
of the evolutionary theory
Joseph Lister- English surgeon who was the first to use antiseptics. He promoted the idea of sterile surgery.
Factory life (How it changed the lives of workers)- The people used to work in the quiet rural areas and then moved to
the cities to work in factories, which changes their lifestyle completely. They went from having a lot of land and privacy
to small compacted areas that would be shared with other families.