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The Old Regime: Reign of King Louis XVI (1774-1792)

.Marie Antoinette- Accused of saying "Let them eat cake" when she found out her country was starving. Marie was the queen of France and the wife of Louis XVI.

Cardinal Fleury (1653-1743)- He was a French cardinal who was also the chief minister of Louis XV.

financial and administrative problems- When Louis XVI became king, France was poor and had many debts. Louis increased taxes and it resulted in misery for the French.

Demands of the Nobility- Louis XVI was 20 years old when he took the throne. He seemed more out of place and said that he wished he was a normal person rather than a king.

Identify "Jacques Turgot" (1727-1781)- He was a French statesman and economist.

Identify "Jacques Necker" (1732-1804)- He was a French statesman and minister of Louis XVI.

Explain Louis Reign- King Louic XVI seemed to be working to improve France and help the Revolution, but he was encouraged to forget all promises he had made to the French. When he ignored his promises to obey the French constitution led to be a disaster.

The Estates General (1788)

First Estate- The First and Second Estates, held most of the nobility. The First Estate could always outvote the Third Estate.

Second Estate- The First and Second Estates, held most of the nobility. The Second Estate could always outvote the Third Estate.

Bourgeoisie- Bourgeoisie is the capitalist class, the middle class. It is a term referring to the owners of capital.

Proletariat- Proletariat is the working class, those who do not own a capital. The actual term means “workers.”

Third Estate- The First and Second Estates, held most of the nobility, and could always outvote the Third Estate. The economic power of the Third Estate increased a lot over time.

Peasant life in France-

Gabelle- The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France. It was a tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France

The Middle Class- The middle class in France was known as the bourgeoisie. This class is the working class.

King Louis XVI summons the Estates General (1788)

Identify "Elections for the Estates General"- The Assembly of Notables was not successful to fix the financial chaos of the French government. King Louis XVI ordered elections for the States General as a last resort.
Identify "Demands on the Monarchy"- There were many problems with the French monarchy and government. Louis was a not a strong ruler and this hurt France.
Voting By Order- Before it was put into action, each estate would meet separately and vote. With the new system it made the Third Estate win easily.

The Third Estate proclaims itself to be the National Assembly (1789)

Identify "The Tennis Court Oath"- The Tennis Court Oath was a pledge signed by members of France's Third Estate. It was an early beginning in starting the French Revolution.

Identify "Louis XVI Versus the National Assembly"-

A Paris Mob storms the Bastille (1789)

Describe what happened- They invaded the Bastille. The attackers mainly wanted to get the a large amount of ammunition that was stored there.

Jacques Necker's restoration-
Jean Bailly's promotion (1736-1793)- French astronomer noted for his computation of an orbit for Halley's Comet. He was also a statesman who took part in the revolutionary events of his age.

Marquis de Lafayette's promotion (1757-1834)- Held a lieutenant's commission in the royal musketeers, a body of soldiers charged with the defense of the king's person.

How did the revolt affect most aristocrats?- With the lower classes holding a revolution the upper classes suffered. The lower classes were gaining more power.

The Great Fear Sweeps the French countryside (1789)

Describe- The peasants started to realize that there were food shortages and economic depression. There was a reaction known as the grande peur, “great fear.”
Effects- Assembly conducted a new regime. The Assembly drew up a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

The National Assembly approves the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the citizen (1789)

Describe the Declaration of the Rights of Man- This was one of the most important documents of the French Revolution, it gave a set of individual rights. The document declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.

Declaration of the Rights of Women- Gouges took the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and altered it to benefit women. The Decleration of the Rights of Women helped show that women played an important role in society.

Mob Action (1789) People wanted to be sure that the rights were true. Some people formed mobs and invaded castles to cause chaos.

Political Clubs- Political clubs such as: The Jacobins, The Cordeliers, and the Feuillants. There were many other Political clubs in France.

The Jacobins- Was the most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution.

The Cordeliers- Also known as the Club of the Cordeliers. It was a populist society during the French Revolution.

The Feuillants- The Feuillants advocated a constitutional monarchy. In 1792, the Feuillant ministry was overthrown, which was against the war against Austria.

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy(1789)- Put the Catholic Church under the control of the state. Bishops and priests became elected and were paid officials.

The National Assembly enacts the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790)

The Constitution of 1791 establishes a constitutional monarchy (1791)

Necker's resignation- He was unable to save the French from bankruptcy. His policy was one of reform. His dismissal led to the storming of the Bastille

Mirabeau- French revolutionary who was important in the French Revolution.

Mirabeau's death (1791)

Louis XVI and family flee but captured- Louis XVI was told to forget all promises he made and forced to flee from France. The king and his family escaped and retreated to the hall of the Legislative Assembly.

Louis accepts New Constitution (Sept. 14, 1791)- At first the king seemed to work well with the new constitution and to tried to solve problems. But the change did not last long before he went against his word.

Legislative Assembly convenes (1791-92)

Conservatives- Relate to politics and philosophy. They usually agree with the politically right.

Moderates (centrists)- a moderate is a person who holds a middle position. The word "moderate" describes such this position.

Girondists- comprised a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution.

Mountain- A group of people that consisted of the Jacobins and the Cordeliers. They ruled France during the Reign of Terror.

Intervention of Foreign Powers (1791-92)- Louis XVI's tried to escape from France and caused more fighting.

Austria-Prussia Alliance- Austria and Prussia formed an alliance. Their alliance was for spreading the revolution and strengthening power.

France's Legislative Assembly declares war (April 20, 1792)- Prussia and Austria invaded France. A new government called the commune put the king in prison.

The Legislative Assembly deposes King Louis XVI and calls for the election of the National Convention (1792)

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity- Symbol of what the French Revolution was fighting for. This was a very famous quote that everyone said during the French Revolution.

Radical Takeover- After the execution of Louis XVI France was chaotic and the National Convention took over.

Robespierre- An elected states-general. Was a great influential general and later bacam Jacobins leader.

Danton- Minister of Justice in the new republic. Supported peace making when France suffered military reverses.

Marat- A reputable doctor in London where he studied medicine. Attempted to get praise for his work.

sans-culottes- term used to describe lower class in France. Term refers to the clothing the people wore compared to the upperclassmen.

King Louis XVI is executed (1793)- Tried and convicted for treason. Executed in January of 1793.

The Reign of Terror begins (1793)

committee of public safety- committee developed by the country that’s purpose was to protect the public. Had majority of power at a certain point in time.

Jacobins- The most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution.

Republic of virtue- Robisperre was an intense leader who believes in harsh punishements. He believed all criminals should be executed.

Justification of extreme violence- In Robespierre’s opinion, every criminal should be executes. This changed the peoples’ way of thinking to be very violent.

revolutionary tribunal- A new idea, believed in quick court trials. In these trials they would sentence the victim to death most of the time, and they did it very quickly.

How many dead?- there was an estimate that 40,000 people were killed. This count included the queen.

The National Convention abolishes the monarchy (1792)

The War of the First Coalition is fought (1792-1797)- War against the French. Most of Europe was fighting against the French.

lev'ee en masse- This was the idea that no single power could come to dominate until the French provided “manpower.”

coalition- Coalition is a term that means alliance. Most of Europe had a coalition against France.

French military victories- The French military was very good, they were a very strong force. They won most of their battles and became very successful.

Treaty of Basel- Treaty signed by the Prussia and Spain that forced them out of the Revolutionary wars.

The Thermidorean Reaction ends the Reign of Terror (1794)

guillotine- Means that you kill by cutting the head off with a guillotine. The French guillotined many Vietnamese while they occupied the country.

The Directory begins to rule France(1795-1799)

financial crisis- A loss in a country's money or other property.
corruption- political corruption is the abuse of power for private benefits.

exhaustion- a lack in ability that are usually taken for granted.
army- term for military of a nation or state. Usually a land military.

BY: Nicole Knicker
Napoleon Bonaparte is born in Corsica (1769-1821)
1. birth and childhood- Napoleon was born on August 15 1769, in the city of Ajaccio in Corsica. Napoleon spent his entire childhood hating France, he was one of 8 children, and Napoleon loved his mother more than anything in the world, even more than his father.
2. physical stature (Napoleonic complex) - Napoleon was short. His greatness soared into the air taller than the tallest man.
3. Marriage and political significance- Napoleon was married twice throughout his life. First to Joséphine de Beauharnais then to Archduchess Marie Louise. Napoleon’s political significance was very high; he was seen as a ruler.
Early military successes (1796)-
1. Napoleon's army defeats the Austrians in Northern Italy (1797) - Napoleon personally leads the army himself. The war took place in Italy in the city of Lodi.
2. Treaty of Campo Formio- Napoleon signed this treaty without any authorization. This Treaty marked the collapse of the First Coalition.
3. 1798-1799 French extend their control- Napoleon wanted to become the second Alexander the Great. In order to do so he had to conquer more and more land to become a great empire.
Napoleon Fights his Egyptian campaign (1798-1799)
1. Napoleon's invasion of Egypt/ why? - Napoleon invaded Egypt to expand France’s empire. He knew that the Egyptians ruled over a great amount of land and if he conquered it he would have even more land and become even greater.
2. Rosetta Stone Discovery- The stone was discovered in the year 1799 by Napoleon’s Army. The stone was made of basalt and was a key to deciphering the Egyptian Hieroglyphs.
3. Battle of the Pyramids- The battle took place on July 21, 1798 against the Mamelukes. That day Napoleon ended their rule.
4. Lord Horatio Nelson's role (1758-1805) - He was part of the British army. As a commander he was known for bold actions and that made him a good fighter.
5. Battle of the Nile- Lord Horatio Nelson defeated Napoleon’s army. The war took place in the year 1798.
War of the Second Coalition is fought (1798-1801)
1. Describe the war and its participants- The war took place from the years 1798 to the year 1801. It participants contained the British, Austria, Russia, Turkey, the Vatican, Portugal, and Naples. They all we against the fleet of the French.
2. Alliance against France- All of these countries, Austria, Russia, Turkey, the Vatican, Portugal, and Naples, teamed up against the French. The British we the last ones to sign on with this new fleet.
3. Napoleon's defeat of the Second Coalition- Without a defeat Napoleon realized that there would be no peace with the UK. The Treaty of Amiens resulted in peace and the downfall of the second coalition.
4. Treaty of Luneville- signed on February 9, 1801. It was a treaty between the French Republic and the Holy Roman Empire.
5. Treaty of Amiens (1802) - Signed on March 25, 1802. It was the second treaty that marked the end of the Second Coalition.
Napoleon Bonaparte seizes power and becomes first consul (1799)- (On this site scroll down to Bonaparte, First Consul)
1. How does he come to power? - Napoleon comes to power by saying he won the revolution. He then crowns himself King.
2. The Constitution of 1799- This established the form of government known as the Consulate. It was adopted on December 24, 1799.
3. Consulate- Marks a period of French history 1799-1804. It is from the fall of the Directory and to the start of the Napoleonic Empire.
The Concordat of 1801 establishes reconciliation between France and the Papacy (1801)
1. What did it do? - It was a declaration that changed the main religion of the French. It did not make it a state religion so it kept its way of religious freedom.
2. Pope Pius VII (1800-1823) - Suffered a major loss of church lands. He has Napoleon excommunicated.
3. Civil Constitution of Clergy- Passed July 12, 1790. It subordinated the Roman Catholic Church.
Napoleon becomes first consul for life (1802)
The Napoleonic Empire / Map (1804)
1. hereditary emperor- The first hereditary emperor was Napoleon. It was this only because he named himself king.
2. Eugene de Beauharnais (1781-1824) - Stepson and adopted child of Napoleon. He was Josephine’s son.
3. Napoleon's divorce 1809) - Napoleon divorced Josephine so that he could marry another to produce an heir. Josephine agreed on this divorce.
4. Archduchess Marie Louise (1791-1847) – This was Napoleon’s second wife. The two remained married until the death of Napoleon.
5. Napoleonic Administration – in order to be eligible for this administration the person had to pay a large sum of taxes. This administration relatively resembled King Louis XVIII’s Charter.
6. Financial Reforms- Congress refused to pay any taxes against them. Napoleon made many reforms that later on in his life led to his fall.
7. Centralized Government- in his government he had appointed many of his family members as monarchs. He also appointed many prefects and administrators to his government.
8. Napoleonic Code 1807 (into effect 1804) - it was to be promulgated with new modifications for the Empire. It was not published and put into effect until 1804.
9. Educational Reform/ University of France (1806) - Napoleon established the University. Napoleon reformed education because he favored education.
Napoleonic Wars (1805-1815)-
1. War of the Third Coalition (1805-1807) - This was against Britain, Austria, Russia, Sweden and some German states. The French fleet could not gain control of the English Channel.
2. British Naval Victory at Trafalgar- The war occurred in the year 1805. The reason this war occurred was because Napoleon wanted to get his army out of the English Channel blockade.
3. French Victories on Land- Some wars fought on land were the Invasion of Russia and Wars of Liberation. Although Napoleon had many wars at sea he still had many on land but usually not in France.
4. Treaty of Pressburg- Signed on December 26, 1805 between France and Austria. This was a consequence followed from the Austrian defeats by France.
Napoleon creates the Confederation of the Rhine and abolishes the Holy Roman Empire (1806)
1. Describe what it did. - This Rhine was a league of German states. This confederation nearly contained all of the German states except for Austria and Prussia.
2. Treaties of Tilsit- Two agreements signed between France and Russia the second agreement was signed by Prussia and France. They were signed by Napoleon in the town of Tilsit in July of 1807.
3. Tsar Alexander I (1801-1825) - Emperor of Russia from 1801 to 1825 then King of Poland from 1815 to 1825. He is one of the important figures in history of the 19 century.
4. King Frederick William III (1797-1840) - Born on August 3, 1770. Became crown Prince in 1786 when his father ascended the throne.
5. Napoleon's brothers Kings – His brothers Louis and Jerome were at the thrones as Holland and Westphalia were created.
6. Joseph (1768-1844) - Older brother of Napoleon. He was king of Naples from 1806-1808 and King of Spain from 1808-1813.
7. Louis (1778-1846) - Younger than Joseph and Napoleon but older than Jerome. He was made King of Holland.
8. Jerome (1784-1860) - Jerome was the Youngest brother of Napoleon. Napoleon made him King of Westphalia.
Napoleon establishes the continental system (1806)
1. Describe what it did - It was an embargo. This embargo later failed even though it encouraged British merchants to aggressively seek out new markets and to engage in smuggling with continental Europe.
2. Berlin Decree of 1806- It basically was an answer to the British blockade. Napoleon retaliated by declaring the British Isles under blockade.
3. Milan Decree 1807- This was a decree that was an attempt to enforce the Continental System. It was also designed to strengthen the Berlin Decree.
4. The Peninsular War- This war destroyed the social and economic fabric of Portugal and Spain. The nature of the war was largely dedicated by the characteristics of the Iberian Peninsula.
5. Sir Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852) - He was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman. He was considered one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century.
Conflict on Other Fronts (1808-1810)
1. Austria- In 1796 France attacked Austria. These countries have been against each other for quite sometime.
2. Battle of Wagram (July 1809)- Within hours at the beginning of the battle Napoleon had much of the city under his control. Napoleon wanted to give another go six weeks after the defeat by Austria.
3. Treaty of Schonbrunn (Oct. 1809)- This treaty made Austria give up lands to Bavaria. It also ceded much of the Austrian Coastline to France.
4. Plans to restore the French Empire in America (1803)- Napoleon started his ideas to plan a restoration in America starting from the year 1803.
5. Louisiana territory (1803)- A treaty was signed on April 30, 1803 that had the United States purchase the Louisiana Territory from France. The amount of land was more than 2 million sq km.
War of 1812
1. Describe the happenings of the War- The war lasted for over 2 years. The offensive actions of the United States to gain Canadian land failed.
Napoleon fights his unsuccessful Russian campaign (1812)
1. Invasion of Russia- In 1812 Napoleon began his fatal Russian Campaign against Russia. The Russians had no way they could win the battles so all they could do to win was to keep up its defensive lines.
2. Prince Mikhail Barclay de Tollay (1761-1818)- This man was a Russian field marshal. He became Minister of War in the year of 1810.
3. Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov- He entered the army in the year 1759 or 1760. He saw active service in Poland.
4. Battle of Borodino- This battle is also called the Battle of Moskva. It was the largest as bloodiest single-day battle.
5. Grand Army entered Moscow- Napoleon entered into Moscow and the city was under their control within 12 days.
6. French Retreat (Oct 19, 1812) - The French Retreated from Russia. The reason they retreated was because they left.
Russia, Prussia, and Austria defeat Napoleon in the Battle of Nations (1813)
1. Battle of the Nations- This was one of the largest wars fought by Napoleon. This battle occurred in the year 1813.
Napoleon abdicates and goes into exile on the island of Elba (1814)
1. Describe Napoleon's exile - Napoleon was exiled on May 4th 1814. Along with that he got the name Emperor of Elba.
2. Louis XVIII (1814-1824)- The King of France and Navaree from 1814. He was born on November 18, 1755.
Napoleon returns to power, beginning the Hundred Days (1815) (scroll down)
1. Describe the 100 Days- The day Napoleon returned to power the 100 days began. This ruling under Napoleon last 100 days hence the name.
Napoleon is defeated at Waterloo (1815)
1. Describe the Battle of Waterloo.- This war occurred on June 18, 1815. After the battle the land was given to the Wellington Family.
2. Duke of Wellington- The most famous soldier, other than Napoleon. He got his military training in Indiana.
3. Gebhard Von Blucher (1742-1819)- This man was born into a military family. He joined the Swedish army in 1742.
Napoleon dies on Saint Helena (1821)

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