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The Old Regime: Reign of King Louis XVI (1774-1792)
.Marie Antoinette- Accused of saying "Let them eat cake" when she found out her country was starving. Marie was
the queen of France and the wife of Louis XVI.
Cardinal Fleury (1653-1743)- He was a French cardinal who was also the chief minister of Louis XV.
financial and administrative problems- When Louis XVI became king, France was poor and had many debts. Louis increased
taxes and it resulted in misery for the French.
Demands of the Nobility- Louis XVI was 20 years old when he took the throne. He seemed more out of place and said that
he wished he was a normal person rather than a king.
Identify "Jacques Turgot" (1727-1781)- He was a French statesman and economist.
Identify "Jacques Necker" (1732-1804)- He was a French statesman and minister of Louis XVI.
Explain Louis Reign- King Louic XVI seemed to be working to improve France and help the Revolution, but he was encouraged
to forget all promises he had made to the French. When he ignored his promises to obey the French constitution led to be a
The Estates General (1788)
First Estate- The First and Second Estates, held most of the nobility. The First Estate could always outvote the Third Estate.
Second Estate- The First and Second Estates, held most of the nobility. The Second Estate could always outvote the Third
Bourgeoisie- Bourgeoisie is the capitalist class, the middle class. It is a term referring to the owners of capital.
Proletariat- Proletariat is the working class, those who do not own a capital. The actual term means “workers.”
Third Estate- The First and Second Estates, held most of the nobility, and could always outvote the Third Estate. The
economic power of the Third Estate increased a lot over time.
Peasant life in France-
Gabelle- The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France. It was a tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France
The Middle Class- The middle class in France was known as the bourgeoisie. This class is the working class.
King Louis XVI summons the Estates General (1788)
Identify "Elections for the Estates General"- The Assembly of Notables was not successful to fix the financial chaos
of the French government. King Louis XVI ordered elections for the States General as a last resort.
Identify "Demands on the Monarchy"- There were many problems with the French monarchy and government. Louis
was a not a strong ruler and this hurt France.
Voting By Order- Before it was put into action, each estate would meet separately and vote. With the new system it made
the Third Estate win easily.
The Third Estate proclaims itself to be the National Assembly (1789)
Identify "The Tennis Court Oath"- The Tennis Court Oath was a pledge signed by members of France's Third Estate.
It was an early beginning in starting the French Revolution.
Identify "Louis XVI Versus the National Assembly"-
A Paris Mob storms the Bastille (1789)
Describe what happened- They invaded the Bastille. The attackers mainly wanted to get the a large amount of ammunition that
was stored there.
Jacques Necker's restoration-
Jean Bailly's promotion (1736-1793)- French astronomer noted for his computation of an orbit for Halley's Comet. He was
also a statesman who took part in the revolutionary events of his age.
Marquis de Lafayette's promotion (1757-1834)- Held a lieutenant's commission in the royal musketeers, a body of soldiers
charged with the defense of the king's person.
How did the revolt affect most aristocrats?- With the lower classes holding a revolution the upper classes suffered. The
lower classes were gaining more power.
The Great Fear Sweeps the French countryside (1789)
Describe- The peasants started to realize that there were food shortages and economic depression. There was a reaction known
as the grande peur, “great fear.”
Effects- Assembly conducted a new regime. The Assembly drew up a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
The National Assembly approves the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the citizen (1789)
Describe the Declaration of the Rights of Man- This was one of the most important documents of the French Revolution, it gave
a set of individual rights. The document declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.
Declaration of the Rights of Women- Gouges took the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and altered it to benefit
women. The Decleration of the Rights of Women helped show that women played an important role in society.
Mob Action (1789) People wanted to be sure that the rights were true. Some people formed mobs and invaded castles to cause
Political Clubs- Political clubs such as: The Jacobins, The Cordeliers, and the Feuillants. There were many other Political
clubs in France.
The Jacobins- Was the most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution.
The Cordeliers- Also known as the Club of the Cordeliers. It was a populist society during the French Revolution.
The Feuillants- The Feuillants advocated a constitutional monarchy. In 1792, the Feuillant ministry was overthrown, which
was against the war against Austria.
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy(1789)- Put the Catholic Church under the control of the state. Bishops and priests
became elected and were paid officials.
The National Assembly enacts the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790)
The Constitution of 1791 establishes a constitutional monarchy (1791)
Necker's resignation- He was unable to save the French from bankruptcy. His policy was one of reform. His dismissal led to
the storming of the Bastille
Mirabeau- French revolutionary who was important in the French Revolution.
Mirabeau's death (1791)
Louis XVI and family flee but captured- Louis XVI was told to forget all promises he made and forced to flee from France.
The king and his family escaped and retreated to the hall of the Legislative Assembly.
Louis accepts New Constitution (Sept. 14, 1791)- At first the king seemed to work well with the new constitution and to
tried to solve problems. But the change did not last long before he went against his word.
Legislative Assembly convenes (1791-92)
Conservatives- Relate to politics and philosophy. They usually agree with the politically right.
Moderates (centrists)- a moderate is a person who holds a middle position. The word "moderate" describes such
Girondists- comprised a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during
the French Revolution.
Mountain- A group of people that consisted of the Jacobins and the Cordeliers. They ruled France during the Reign of Terror.
Intervention of Foreign Powers (1791-92)- Louis XVI's tried to escape from France and caused more fighting.
Austria-Prussia Alliance- Austria and Prussia formed an alliance. Their alliance was for spreading the revolution and
France's Legislative Assembly declares war (April 20, 1792)- Prussia and Austria invaded France. A new government called
the commune put the king in prison.
The Legislative Assembly deposes King Louis XVI and calls for the election of the National Convention (1792)
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity- Symbol of what the French Revolution was fighting for. This was a very famous quote that everyone
said during the French Revolution.
Radical Takeover- After the execution of Louis XVI France was chaotic and the National Convention took over.
Robespierre- An elected states-general. Was a great influential general and later bacam Jacobins leader.
Danton- Minister of Justice in the new republic. Supported peace making when France suffered military reverses.
Marat- A reputable doctor in London where he studied medicine. Attempted to get praise for his work.
sans-culottes- term used to describe lower class in France. Term refers to the clothing the people wore compared to the
King Louis XVI is executed (1793)- Tried and convicted for treason. Executed in January of 1793.
The Reign of Terror begins (1793)
committee of public safety- committee developed by the country that’s purpose was to protect the public. Had majority
of power at a certain point in time.
Jacobins- The most famous of the political clubs of the French Revolution.
Republic of virtue- Robisperre was an intense leader who believes in harsh punishements. He believed all criminals should
Justification of extreme violence- In Robespierre’s opinion, every criminal should be executes. This changed
the peoples’ way of thinking to be very violent.
revolutionary tribunal- A new idea, believed in quick court trials. In these trials they would sentence the victim to
death most of the time, and they did it very quickly.
How many dead?- there was an estimate that 40,000 people were killed. This count included the queen.
The National Convention abolishes the monarchy (1792)
The War of the First Coalition is fought (1792-1797)- War against the French. Most of Europe was fighting against the French.
lev'ee en masse- This was the idea that no single power could come to dominate until the French provided “manpower.”
coalition- Coalition is a term that means alliance. Most of Europe had a coalition against France.
French military victories- The French military was very good, they were a very strong force. They won most of their battles
and became very successful.
Treaty of Basel- Treaty signed by the Prussia and Spain that forced them out of the Revolutionary wars.
The Thermidorean Reaction ends the Reign of Terror (1794)
guillotine- Means that you kill by cutting the head off with a guillotine. The French guillotined many Vietnamese while they
occupied the country.
The Directory begins to rule France(1795-1799)
financial crisis- A loss in a country's money or other property.
corruption- political corruption is the abuse of power for private benefits.
exhaustion- a lack in ability that are usually taken for granted.
army- term for military of a nation or state. Usually a land military.