I. A Land of Great Potential
A. Rome had linked its far-flung European territories with like of fine Roads and had spread classical ideas, Latin language,
and Christianity to the tribal peoples of Western Europe.
B. Europe is a relatively small area, although its impact on the modern world has been enormous.
C. The seas that surround much of Europe were important to its growth.
II. Germanic Kingdoms
A. The Germanic tribes who migrated across Europe were farmers and herders, their culture differed greatly from the Romans.
B. Between 400 and 700, the Germanic tribes carved up Western Europe into small kingdoms, the strongest and most successful
of those kingdoms was that of the Franks.
C. Clovis, ruler of a great energy and ability, became king of the Franks. Under his rule the Franks were able to conquer
III. Islam: A New Mediterranean Power
A. A powerful new force, Islam, swept out of the Middle East into the Mediterranean world.
B. Within 200 years Muslims, as believers as the Islamic faith are called, had built a great empire and created a major
C. To European Christians, the Muslim presence was a source of anxiety and anger as they watched Muslim armies overrun
IV. The Age of Charlemagne
A. Charlemagne built an empire reaching across France, Germany, and part of Italy.
B. In late 800 Pope Leo III called on the Frankish king for help against the rebellious nobles in Rome, Charlemagne marched
south and crushed the rebellious Romans.
C. Charlemagne tried to exercise control over his many lands and create a united Christian Europe.
V. A Revival of Learning
A. Charlemagne hoped to make his capital at Aachen, a “second Rome,” and to achieve this goal he made
determined efforts to revive Latin learning throughout his empire.
B. To ensure a supply of educated officials, Charlemagne set up a palace school at Aachen.
C. He set a respected scholar to run the school.
VI. Charlemagne’s Legacy
A. After Charlemagne died his empire soon fell apart.
B. Although his great empire fell the great Frankish ruler left a lasting legacy: he expanded Christianity, he set up
a strong and efficient government, and followed his example when they tried to centralize their own kingdoms.
C. Charlemagne’s grandsons drew up the Treaty of Verdun, which split the empire into three regions.
VII. New Attacks
A. Even after the defeat at Tours in 732, Muslim forces kept the pressure on Europe.
B. About 896 a new wave of nomadic people, the Magyars, settled in today’s Hungary.
C. The most destructive raiders were the Vikings, although they were not fierce warriors, the Vikings were traders and
VIII. A New System of Rules
A. Because of the Viking invasions the Muslims’ and the Magyar’s emperors and kings were weakened.
B. Because of the basic need for protections, a new system, called feudalism, evolved. Feudalism was a loosely organized
system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their large land holdings among the lesser lords.
C. In exchange for land there were vassals, or pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord. For that work the lesser
lord would be issued a fief, or estate.
IX. Lords, Vassals, and Knights
A. Everyone had a place in feudal society.
B. Below the monarchs were the most powerful lords-dukes and counts- who held the largest fiefs.
C. Some fiefs had more than one lord, but if there was a quarrel between the two lords and he was forced to choose they
would most likely choose the lord that he was first loyal to.
X. The World of Warriors
A. Feudal lords battled constantly for power and for feudal nobles warfare was a way of life.
B. Many nobles trained from boyhood for a future in the occupation of being a knight, or mounted warrior.
C. In the middle ages knights adopted a code of conduct called chivalry.
XI. The Manor
A. The heart of the medieval economy was the manor, or lord’s estate.
B. Most peasants on a manor were serfs, who were bound to the land.
C. Peasants and their lords were tied together by mutual rights and responsibilities.
XII. Daily Life
A. For peasants, life was harsh. Men, women, and children worked long hours from sunup to sundown.
B. Despite life’s grimness, peasants found occasions to celebrate, such as marriages and birth.
C. On Sabbath, peasants might attend chapel, after service they gossiped or danced, even though the priest might condemn
their racy songs or rowdy behavior.
XIII. A Spiritual and Worldly Empire
A. The Roman Catholic Church began to grow stronger.
B. Medieval Christians believed that all people were sinners, doomed to eternal suffering.
C. A powerful noble who violated church laws could face interdict.
XIV. The Church and Daily Life
A. For peasants religion was linked to routines or daily life.
B. To support itself the church required all Christians to pat a tithe.
C. The church taught men and women were equal before God, but on earth women were inferior to men.
XV. Monks and Nuns
A. Both men and women might withdraw from worldly life to become monks or nuns.
B. A monk named Benedictine founded the monastery of Monte Cassino in Italy.
C. Under Benedictine monks and nuns took an oath of poverty.
XVI. Hildegard of Bingen: Advisor to Popes and Kings
A. Hildegard founded a new convent, near Bingen, in Germany.
B. Hildegard did not hesitate to speak her mind and encouraged or scolded churchmen and rulers alike.
C. It was frowned on too much learning for women, preferring to except the church’s authority.
XVII. Reform Movements
A. In the early 900’s the pious Abbot Berno set out to end abuses.
B. He revived the Benedictine Rule, announced that he would not permit nobles to interfere with the running of the monastery,
and filled the monastery with men who were devoted solely to religious pursuits.
C. Some women responded to the call of reform by creating groups that were independent of the regular church orders
XVIII. Jews in Western Europe
A. Medieval Europe was home to numerous Jewish communities.
B. The Mediterranean, or Sephardic, Jews flourished particularly in Spain.
C. The church charged the Jews for being responsible for killing Jesus then they laid the foundations for anti-Semitism,
or prejudice against Jews.
XIX. An Agriculture Revolution
A. Peasants were using iron plows that carved deep into the heavy soil.
B. Peasants adopted the three-field system.
C. All of the improvements let farmers produce more food.
XX. Trade Revives
A. Europe’s growing population needed goods that were not available.
B. Peasants needed iron for farm tools, wealthy nobles wanted more wool, furs and spices.
C. Enterprising traders formed merchant companies that traveled in armed caravans for safety.
XXI. A Commercial Revolution
A. As trade revived, money reappeared. This led to more changes. Merchants needed money to buy goods, so they had to borrow
B. The new ways o doing business were a part of commercial revolution that transformed medieval economy.
C. There were a number of independent woman, in towns, they had the right to carry on and trade and buy and sell their
XXII. Role of Guilds
A. Merchant guilds, or associates, dominated life in medieval towns.
B. They passed laws, levied taxes, and decided whether to spend funds.
C. To become a guild member meant many years of hard work as an apprentice or trainee.
XXIII. City Life
A. Medieval towns and cities were surrounded by high, protective walls.
B. Medieval cities were a jumble of narrow streets lined with tall houses.
C. Even a rich town had no garbage collection or sewer system.
XXIV. Looking Ahead
A. By 1300, Western Europe was a different place from what it had been in the Middle Ages.
B. In the global sphere, the economic revival of the High Middle Ages was bringing Europeans into contact with civilizations
much more advanced.
C. Products, ideas, and technologies that would bring a great transformation in how Europeans thought and lived.
I. Monarchs, Nobles, and the Church
A. In Medieval Europe, kings stood at the head of society.
B. Nobles and the church had more power than the king.
C. The struggles among monarchs, nobles, and the church lasted for centuries.
II. Strong Monarchs in England
A. The death of king Edward, who did not leave an heir, changed the course of English history.
B. To learn about his kingdom William had a complete census taken, Domesday Book, which listed every castle, field, and
pigpen in England.
C. The decisions of royal courts became the basis for English common law.
III. Evolving Traditions of Government
A. Henry’s son John was a clever, greedy, cruel, and untrustworthy leader.
B. Magna Carta contained to basic ideas that in the long run would shape government traditions in England.
C. The king agreed not to raise taxes without consulting the Great Council.
IV. Royal Success in France
A. Monarchs in France did not rule over a unified kingdom.
B. An outstanding French king of this period was Phillip II, often called Phillip Augustus
C. Phillip II was a bald, red-faced man who ate and drank too much, he was a shrewd and able ruler.
V. The Holy Roman Empire
A. In the middle ages, Charlemagne brought much of Germany to his rule.
B. After his death, Germany dissolved into separate states rules by dukes.
C. The duke of Saxony began to extend power over neighboring lands.
VI. Two Determined Rulers
A. Under the reforming pope Gregory VII, the conflict between emperors and the church burst into flames.
B. Henry IV argued that bishops held their lands as royal fiefs.
C. In 1076 Gregory excommunicated Henry, freeing his subjects from their allegiance to the emperor.
VII. New Struggles Between Popes and Emperors
A. Ambitious German emperors sought to master Italy
B. Barbarossa dreamed of building an empire that stretched from the Baltic to the Adriatic
C. While Fredrick was embroiled in Italy he Gave in to many demands of his German nobles.
VIII. The Church Under Innocent III
A. In the 1200s, the Roman Catholic Church reached its peak of power
B. Popes like Gregory VII deposed kings and emperors
C. Innocent III claimed supremacy over all other rulers.
IX. The World in 1050
A. Several civilizations in the Middle East and Asia had been major powers when Western Europe was barely emerging
from isolation in 1050.
B. India and China lie beyond the Muslim world.
C. Byzantine civilization was a rival to Islam in the eastern Mediterranean.
X. The Crusades
A. Religion was a motive to go to the holy land and few returned.
B. after a long bloody campaign Christian knights captured Jerusalem in 1099.
C. The Crusaders divided the land into four small states.
XI. Impact of the Crusades
A. The crusades failed in their chief goal in the holy land.
B. In the Middle East both Christians and Muslims committed atrouscities in the name of religion
C. Crusaders sometimes turned religious
XII. The Crusading Spirit and the Reconquista
A. Long after the Eurpean defeat at Acre, the crusading spirit continued.
B. Efforts to expel the Muslims began in the 700’s by Christian warriors.
C. Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469.
XIII. Medieval Universities
A. The church wanted better-educated clergy
B. Rulers also needed growing literature regarding bureaucracy
C. A bell awakens students a t 5 AM for prayers.
XIV. Europeans Acquire “New” Learning
A. Muslim scholars where able to translate the works of Aristotle
B. They were sweeping Europe.
C. Scholasticism used reason to support Christian beliefs.
XV. Education for Women
A. Few women were able to get an education.
B. De Pizan was married at the age of 15.
C. De Pizan’s husband died before she was 25.
XVI. Medieval Literature
A. Divine Comedy is about some guy that goes to hell.
B. The Poem of the Cid involved conflict with Islam.
C. A vernacular was the everyday languages of people.
XVII. Splendors in Stone
A. About 1000, monasteries and towns built solid stone churches
B. These roman churches looked like fortresses with solid walls and towers
C. The roofs were so heavy builders cut slits in the walls in fear of weakening the supports
XVIII. The Black Death
A. The Black Death started in the autumn of 1347
B. It got to Spain and France by 1348
C. There were about 7000 people killed a day.
XIX. Upheaval in the Church
A. Many priest and monks died in the plague
B. 1309, pope clement V moved the papal court to Avignon on the border of southern France
C. In 1378, reformers elected their own pope to rule Rome.
XX. The Hundred Years’ War
A. England and France fought a series of conflicts between 1337 and 1453.
B. The English won a string of victories at first.
C. The Hundred Years’ war set France and England on different paths in the end.
XXI. Looking Ahead
A. The knights and castles were doomed to disappear.
B. Strong monarchs needed large armies to fight their wars
C. In 1400 Europe recovered from the Black Death.