*Minoan civilization and the importance of its location- The Minoan civilization had a great location for trading, they
were an island in the Mediterranean Sea and had access to the Nile Valley and the Middle East.
*Explain how Sparta's location was important.- Sparta was isolated from the other city-states of Rome and this is important
to their history because with the isolation came a great love and loyalty to Sparta.
*Trojan war- The conflict responsible for the Trojan War may have been its origins in economic rivalry between Mycenaean
and Troy, Troy controlled the straits that connected the Mediterranean and Black seas.
*geography of Greece- Greece is part of the Balkan Peninsula, which extends southward into the eastern Mediterranean Sea.
* Post Persian wars domination- Before the Persian Wars, Persia dominated most wars and battles, but after they were conquered
by Greece that changed.
*Peloponnesian War- The Peloponnesian War was a war between Athens and Sparta, the war ended with Athenian greatness.
*Greek theater origins- Theatre was originated in Greece, including the famous tragedy and comedy types of theatre.
*Alexander's achievements and empire- Alexander conquered many lands from Macedonia to Persia. Thanks to those conquests
there was a blending of cultures.
*center of Hellenistic world- The center of the Hellenistic world was education.
*geographic characteristics of Greece- Greece is part of the Balkan Peninsula, which extends southward into the eastern
*oligarchy- power is given to a small, powerful elite, usually from the business class.
*democracy- government of the people
*Spartan childhoods- Sparta boys are taken from their homes when they are about six years old and are trained for the
army, the girls are raised to be physically fit so that their children will be healthy.
*Athens' golden age- There was a time when Athens benefited from being a solid and successful army that no one could conquer.
*Greek values- The Greeks were very proud or their country along with their country’s achievements and their
heritage is very proud of the Greek heritage.
*Augustus- Augustus was a Roman leader who started the age of Pax Romana.
*Julius Caesar- Caesar conquered many lands for Rome. Split loyalty to him and Pompey brought about a civil war.
*Hannibal- Hannibal was a general who commanded the Carthaginian army in the second Punic War.
*Jesus- Jesus’ teachings were rooted in Jewish tradition and at the same time preached new beliefs. He was later
crucified on a cross by the Romans.
*Paul- Paul was once a persecutor of Christians until he had a vision and then he himself began to spread the word of
*Ptolemy- Ptolemy was a Greek geographer, astronomer, and astrologer who probably lived and worked in Alexandria in Egypt.
*Virgil- Virgil was a Roman poet.
*Martyr- a person who dies for his or her religious faith.
*Mercenary- a soldier who fights for money.
*Messiah- the awaited king of the Jews; the promised and expected deliverer of the Jewish people. Jesus claimed that he
was the long awaited messiah.
*patrician- is one of the fathers of Rome.
*plebian- a member of the large class of ordinary citizens.
*aqueduct- a channel that resembles a bridge but carries water over a valley.
*heresy- a belief that rejects the orthodox views of a religion.
*legion- a regiment of the Roman army of 5,000 men.
*republic- a state in which power is ultimately from the people.
*sect a subdivision of a larger religious group.